Online Class

Globalization leads to many alterations from e-commerce to e-governance and which includes e - classes or online classes.
 
Online classes have initiated after emerging of internet and has begun from you tube but has incessantly evolved globally . Especially after the outbreak of corona virus easing COVID - 19, everyone just want to continue their classes either to teach or to get taught. So,for the ease of everyone , people started online classes.
Formerly , you tube was one of the platform to study online , anyone who wants to grab knowledge on any topic , they can get tutorial for everything on You Tube but it was so inconvenient for the folks to get rid of their doubts. So, then there came into existence applications for android phones to get online classes while having face to face discussion on the matter.
 
So, Online classes brought resilience in the way of learning as well as teaching. One can easily understand any concept by the visuals shown or asking their doubts on any topic. This brings an ease in learning while sitting on the comfort zone of our place .
 
But as we know there are two phases of a coin. While online classes brought resilience we can not deny the fact being studying in an environment , where we actually feel like learning something incessantly. Being surrounded by our colleagues , listening to them gives everyone a new approach to understand a matter, basically something pragmatic avenues.
As we know
 
  "A plant grows when it gets proper oxygen, sunlight and water in proper habitat ".
 
So is a child, they get their proper education in the environment of school.
 
Perhaps India being a country of mixed economy, a majority of it lacks the basic facilities, so it would be unable for them to attend online classes.
 
So we can conclude that we have to see every aspect of any new change occurring in the world and must have a look on the aftermath as well as its consequences. Technological advancement can lead our nation from developing to developed when every section of society can be taken care of providing them with all the necessary facilities.
 
 
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ONLINE Faculty Development Program

Greeting from Jharkhand Govt Tool Room ,Ranchi (A Society of Department. of Industries, Govt of Jharkhand) The Government of Jharkhand has set up this modern Tool Room & Training Centres with State of The Art Technology at Tatisilwai Ranchi under the supervision of MECON . This institute is aimed for imparting training in the field of design & manufacturing. It is conducting AICTE approved 4 years Diploma in Tool & Die Making course (Equivalent to Diploma in Mechanical) and various industry oriented skill development courses in the area of Machinist, Welder, Fitter, Electrician, CNC, CAD/CAM, TQM, Inspection & Quality Control, 5S, six sigma, CNC Maintenance, PLC Programming , design and manufacturing of moulds, press tools, die casting dies and jigs & fixture, Mobile phone repairing , Computer Hardware & Network Management etc.. We are announcing   06 Days *ONLINE Faculty Development Program* *(FDP)* on *“Teaching Methodology for Technical Education”* to be conducted by Training Department of *Jharkhand Government Tool Room Ranchi from  26th July to 31th July 2021 .* The highlights of the 06 Day ONLINE Faculty Development Program are as follows: Suitability of participants: *This is a common course for Principals, Training Instructors and faculties.* *Fees:  Rs 500 INR per Participant* *From:  26th July to 31th July 2021.* *Time: 10:00 AM to 12:00 noon* *Platform: Google Meet* *Faculty Development program (Objective):* The Faculty Development Program strengthens the professional development of the faculty members and administrators who deal directly with students. Our goal is to help these educators increase the effectiveness of their teaching, especially in undergraduate programs, so that they are better able to guide students on journeys of inquiry and discovery.     *Main Topics to be covered in the FDP-*
  1. Micro Teaching
  2. Effective Classroom Management
  3. Innovative Teaching Methods
  4. Outcome based Education
  5. Power of Humor in Teaching
  6. Effective Presentation Skill
  7. Industry academy relationship
  8. Workshop and Lab teaching skill
  9. Online teaching
  10. Financial Literacy and self Management of Faculty
After Participation Online E-Certificate will be provided. *Registration Link for Faculty Development Programme -* https://jgmsmetr.com/register/login *For any further information please free to contact with Sanjay Prasad 9835141105.*

Join our Training and development Whatsup group through following link -

https://chat.whatsapp.com/BduWYCUMeGXCvr26uKumue

APPROPRIATE DECISION- KEY OF SUCCESS

MAKING  THE  MOST APPROPRIATE DECISION- KEY OF SUCCESS विश्व में हर व्यक्ति हर समय और  हर स्थान पर  अपनी क्षमता, प्रवृति, विवेक से निर्णय लेता है I गलत निर्णय का परिणाम असफलता अथवा तकलीफ का कारण बन जाता है I इसके विपरीत  लिया हुआ सटीक और सही निर्णय उसे प्रगति के मार्ग में आगे ले जाता है I इस लेख के माध्यम यह प्रयास किया गया है कि  सही समय, स्थान  और परिस्थिति  की पहचान करके सर्वोचित निर्णय लेने की कौन-कौन सी प्रमुख कारक हैं जिसे निर्णय लेते वक़्त ध्यान में रखना आवश्यक है ताकि अच्छे परिणाम-युक्त और सही निर्णय लिया जा सके और सफलता हासिल की जा सके I Every day we take decisions on various issues pertaining to our personal, family, social lives and participate in the decision making process with the group of people within the family and/or organization where we are somehow related to and also affect our life-styles directly and/or indirectly.   Decisions are taken most often while fulfilling the needs (physiological, esteem, self-actualization, safety, security, organizational and social, etc). First of all, we need to understand our status or position in the decision making process.
  1. Whether decision is being taken by majority.
  2. Whether decision is being taken by reaching at consensus. All agree anonymously and with mutual understanding.
  3. Whether decision is taken proportionally, eg, on family matters.
  4. Whether decision is taken on hierarchical basis, eg, when the boss or the eldest member of the family takes decision.
Above situations are related to the people when they are in group whether small, medium or large. But, the person also takes decision at own individual level. Factors influencing the Decision Making Process: The following major factors affect individual’s ability in decision making process.
  1. Just follow, what others do and say.
  2. You surrounded by the people.
  3. Your hierarchical position in the family and organization.
  4. Your personal characteristics like confidence, fearlessness, courage, challenge taking, facing threats, visionary, mindset, flexibility in your views and opinions. Learning aptitude, knowledge, skill, wisdom, logic mind, scientific mind, judicious mind etc.
  5. Resources what you have (shortage, limited, adequate, sufficient or abundant).
  6. Quantum of information what you have.
  7. Your internal and external environments to what extent favourable or adverse.
  8. Your interest on the matters.
  9. Feeling of disagreement and unhappiness by others.
Preparing for making most Appropriate Decision:Taking right decision at right time, right place and right direction is the most important issue to overcome the problems and solving out effectively and efficiently. In order to inculcate such attitude, the following steps may be followed.
  1. Keep your mind open and think the best beyond any kind of constraints, limitations and barriers.
  2. Be flexible in thoughts with acceptability and adoptability mindset.
  3. Develop learning aptitude and enhance knowledge, skill and wisdom.
  4. Be confident, fearless and courageous to accept any kind of challenges and threats.
  5. Identify the resources which would be utilized while executing the decision.
The following steps may be considered to be taken to arrive at the best solution to any problem.
  1. Identify the origin, nature, characteristics, and eco-system of the need or problem.
  2. Identify the purpose of decision ie, goal/target.
  3. Don’t act hurriedly. Keep your mind calm and peace.
  4. Gather relevant information related to need/problem.
  5. Find out alternatives.
  6. Match each alternative with the available resources for getting the best solution.
  7. Check and evaluate the evidences.
  8. Choose the best alternative.
  9. Review the decision taken and evaluate its consequences.

Conclusion: Decision making gives direction to lead life. Poor or wrong decision leads to troubles/failure and vice-versa right decision creates opportunities and solve the problems. This helps in eradicating the barriers and created self-confidence, fearlessness and courage to overthrow challenges and threats. It is therefore highly needed that one should be always on high alert or attention so as to be watchful with the happening taking place around. It is always advised to take interest in knowing and handling the adverse situations by breaking out the comfort zone.  Desire is needed to be generated to face the challenges/threats and finally action  with right decision at right place at right time would yield favorable consequences.

---Dr. Sushil Kumar _______________________________________________________________________ _____   References: i). Tutorialpoint.com/management_concept/decision_making-process.html. II).unmassed.edu/fycm/decision-making/process/ iii).internship.aurorafoundation.com/au/sites/default/files/common_decision_making_process-pdf.

VICTORY IS BEYOND FEAR

VICTORY IS BEYOND FEAR

(डर के आगे जीत है)

प्रस्तुत लेख  में मन से भय अथवा डर की भावना को हटाकर  सफलता की मार्ग पर डट कर आगे बढ़ने सम्बन्धी महत्वपूर्ण  विब्दुओं पर प्रकाश डाला गया  है I डर व्यक्ति का मनोवैज्ञानिक मानसिक अवस्था है जो किसी भी चुनौतियों को स्वीकार करने से रोकता है I यह अवस्था असफलता का कारण बनता है I अतः यह आवश्यक है कि व्यक्ति अपने मन में बिठाए डर को समाप्त करके चुनौतियों का समाधान  करे और पूरी तल्लीनता के साथ विजय पथ पर अग्रसर हो I   Fear of failure in the examination, interview, loss of job, drowning, falling from a height, etc are numerous examples in our day to day lives, which pulls down and create a feeling /state of mind to remain within comfort zone. This emerges due to threat or change for which we are not ready to accept. This is a powerful, natural and primitive human emotion which is expressed physically and/or psychologically. This is a state of afraid of trying or doing some new thing and breaking the comfort zone. It also occurs when a person feel afraid of failure and people will laugh at him. Fear also envelopes the mind of a person who lacks confidence and experience.   The most prevalent fear, presently the whole world is experiencing, is from pandemic COVID 19. People are most concerned with their health, loss of job, loss of business, disruption of education, no classes due to closure of schools/colleges etc.  When a person experiences fear he/she starts showing certain symptoms such as: chest pain, chills, dryness of mouth, nausea, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, sweating, trembling, upset stomach etc.  Fear diminishes the levels of self-confidence, strength and abilities of an individual and ultimately leads to failure.   How to Remove Fear from the Mind: Fear obviously is taken as great barrier/hurdle in development/growth process in the career. This creates a negative personality and causes of failure. In order to erase fear from the mind and lead a successful positive life, the sense of fear is not at all required to nurse in the mind. This may be calculated as: more fear, high failure vice-versa no fear, high success.  The following steps may be considered to overcome fear:
  1. Develop creative and innovative mind: He/ She  may try to do the work in different ways than what others do. Small changes collectively bring big success. Feeling of fear will not come on the way and this will give pleasure when achievement is done in changed situation.
  2. Conquer the challenges/ obstacles and remove from the ways.
  3. Believe on yourself and your work, never confused.
  4. Don’t lose your courage, because it shows possibilities and opportunities.
  5. Build up your faith to succeed.
  6. Take right decisions by asking yourself and get right answers which would give you satisfaction and pleasure.
  7. Keep your knowledge and skill always updated to remove fear from the mind.
  8. Be flexible in your thoughts and listen other’s views.
  Steps to accept the challenges/Threats: Threats and challenges are part and parcel of our lives. So, we need to develop our personalities to accept challenging situations. The following points may be considered in this regard:
  1. Know your and your work’s strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT).
  2. In case of your weak points, take assistance/advices from others.
  3. Acquire/update your knowledge and skill on the work which you are going to perform.
  4. To understand threats and evolve strategy, take help from professional persons.
  5. Accept the challenges/threats and list out their characteristics.
  6. Make up your mind to work out solutions of the challenges/threats.
  7. Believe and do in a team work.
  8. Documentation of the work done by you is a must for ready reference at any time.
  When an individual keeps on trying to solve the problem(s), he/she enhance his/her knowledge, skill and experience and ultimately increase his/her self-confidence. In other words, when confidence level increases, he/she becomes more and more fearless or audacious and solves the problems with balance mind. Those who fail to find out the solutions of any problems, he/she must be congratulated because he/she is the process of learning, building confidence, becoming fearless and gaining experience. He /she is better than those who try to do nothing and gossip. He/she possesses positive mind and learns from the mistakes. Mistakes are the proof that he/she is trying.   Victory is succeeding over struggle which could be possible only when the person eradicate the state of fear from his/her mind.   This is a state of achieving the target or goal after struggle.   Conclusion: Once a person breaks his/her comfort zone and struggle to accomplish his/her objective/goal, his/her confidence, fearlessness, experience, belief, faith and courage lead him/her to victory. Fear is just a state of mind which discourages a person to accept the threats and challenges. This situation does not allow the person to be successful in his/her life and always curses his/her luck, blames others, remains in confusion, and lacks in taking appropriate decision at right time, right place, and right way. Victory is only possible when there is no fear and mind is well organized. There is also needed to keep on changes in work style while delivering goods which enhances the psychological feeling of gaining victory. He/she must make up his/her mind for “STUBBORN FOR VICTORY (जिद्दी जीत के लिए) _____

ENTREPRENEURIAL PRACTICES FOR SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS

ENTREPRENEURIAL PRACTICES FOR SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS The “Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan” is an initiative taken by Government of India to make the country strong and prosperous through enterprise development. In context with global competitiveness and international trades, amount of wealth generated in the economy of a country by her people matters. Development and promotion of MSMEs creates localization of the capital, self-employment, utilization of local resources and human talents what exactly support the activities being done in earning profit in the business and self-reliance and sustenance. This may be noted that this could be only possible when the people possess the qualities of technological, managerial and behavioural capabilities. It is obvious to mention herewith that practicing innovative ideas, their implementation, and catering the needs of the customers and adoptability nature with changing situation lead to success, otherwise people remains poor despite having rich resources around themselves. In this article, I have attempted to show the practical aspect of doing business successfully. First of all, let the youth develop their mind set that they must be master on the wealth (self-employment, ie, self-dependency on own selves for livelihood) rather than becoming servant (employment, ie, dependency on others for livelihood). Seeking Self-Employment: Youth seeking self-employment may follow the following steps before setting up new ventures:
  1. evolving strategies to empower yourself  through enterprise development,
  2. strengthen linkage with  people (customer) and business support organizations,
  3. Create personal as well as image branding and earn goodwill through you behaviour, commitment, integrity, rendering quality services, and doing the things differently.
  4. Involve yourself in generating new ideas, incubate them, and convert them into new viable/feasible project. The new product thus innovated for noble cause should be registered under Intellectual Properties Rights Act.
  5. Evolve process of performance measurement system of your  entrepreneurial practices,
  6. Design and practice monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for continual growth of your business.
  7. Always get ready for research, education and trainings on your entrepreneurial activities.
  8. Avail of Government schemes and programmes in running your business.
Developing Entrepreneurial Mindset:  Entrepreneurship is the process of wealth generation in the economy by mobilizing and making optimum use of resources. Generation of more wealth denotes active and dedicated participation of the people.  This happens when more number of the people participates in the economic activities. Entrepreneurial culture in the society creates conducive atmosphere in building up entrepreneurial mindset among the people. Definition: Entrepreneurial mindset refers to a specific state of mind which orientates human conduct towards entrepreneurial activities and outcomes. Individuals with entrepreneurial mindsets are often drawn to opportunities, innovation and new value creation.  Mindsets of Successful Entrepreneurs:  A successful entrepreneur possesses the following characteristics of mindsets which lead to entrepreneurial mindset.
  1. Identify your market and create networking with potential customers.
  2. Assess the market for your products/services.
  3. Design and develop the products so as cater the needs of customers.
  4. Measure the return on investment you are getting from your networking efforts.
  5. Make sure you give something of value first when making connections instead of beginning by asking for something.
  6. Be sure that and offer the products to the customers with expectation of getting payback. Watch that you receive encouraging and positive feedback from the customers in the market.
  7. Establish your presence in the market through ‘Personal Branding’.
  8. Keep your vision, objective, mission, and ethics very clear and understandable to others.
  9. Be a good Fund Manager.
  10. Brand image of your products must create confidence and reputation for a long run.
  11. Always utilize your resources including time for productive purpose of your business.
  12. Total quality has to be assured all the time.
  13. Make creativity and innovativeness integral part of your business.
  14. Make your product distinct, specific and qualitative.
  15. Keep on adding value to your business.
  16. Take ownership of your business.
Necessary advice, counselling and hand-holding support are rendered at “Innovation & Start-up Entrepreneurship Cell, Institute of Science & Management(ISM), Pundag, Ranchi-834004 (Jharkhand) ; Contact: 9694123257; email id: hodbm@ismr.ac.in References: 1. Oct 16, 2013 by Shawn Hessinger in Management 2.https://smallbiztrends.com/2013/10/successful-entrepreneur-mindset.html)
  1. Entrepreneurship Development in India (First edition);2016; Dr. Sushil Kumar, Avishkar Publication, Jaipur

GENERATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND ITS RELEVANCE TO BUSINESS SUCCESS

GENERATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND ITS RELEVANCE TO BUSINESS SUCCESS

  A successful business is one that makes a bigger profit after understanding and meeting the needs of customers better than its competitors. This can be achieved only if there is: (1)A quality product (better than competing products), (2) A distinctive brand (market recognition and respect for the firm and its product), and (3) effective marketing (demand creating situation). In other words, these elements give a   business competitive advantage over its rivals. Even with these three elements coupled with raw material, special skill, funds, good  distribution network, appropriate production process and technology, may not enable the business firm sustain its competitive edge. Knowledge has become the  most   key resource for building durable competitive edge in the continuously evolving business environment. Hence, Knowledge is a crucial input for creating value.   In context with global business environment coupled with internet, customers have world-wide unlimited choice. Their fast changing taste and beheviour, the products have now shorter and shorter life cycles. It is a growing challenge for most businesses to provide newer, better, more attractive products that catch the eye and retain the interest of customers. The real challenge is to be more resourceful, creative and innovative than the competitors in all aspects of business from conceiving new ideas and transforming them into products, to marketing them in an efficient and cost-effective manner and earning a reasonable profit on the investment made.   Knowledge generates in the mind of human beings may be in the form of old ideas, frameworks, concepts, skill, memories, and so on and develops new ideas, concepts, principles, models, frameworks, guiding principles and skills. Expression of these ideas adds values to the products calling them new products. Sooner or later, this knowledge has to be shared with others. If there trust between owner and user,  then that may suffice. If they have contractual relationship, there might be loss or leakage of knowledge to the competitors. Still in another situation, the competitors might grab the knowledge accidently despite maintaining all secrets and safeguards of the same. In all said situations, a system comes in what is called Intellectual Property(IP). Intellectual property (IP) is the outcome of human intellectual efforts which adds values to the products/services and makes them more marketable and acceptable amongst the customers. This intellectual  efforts once protected under prescribed laws, the business firm/entrepreneur enjoys the market share and maximizes the profits and productivity. Such laws come under Intellectual Property Rights(IPRs). Protection of new technologies, new products innovated, industrial designs, and registration of brand names images enable the business firms to grow and sustain in the economy.

MAKING A SUCCESSFUL CAREER

    व्यक्ति अपने जीवन की आवश्यकताओं, इच्छाओं व् चाहतों को पूरा करने का लक्ष्य बनाता है I लक्ष्य प्राप्ति के लिए अपने करियर में सफलता की उन्च्चत्तम ऊँचाई तक पहुँचने का प्रयास करता है I इस प्रयास में व्यक्ति की शिक्षा, अनुभव, व्यवहार-कुशलता, प्रतिभा, सत्यनिष्ठा, सृजनात्मक व् नवाचार सोंच की प्रमुखता, संगठनात्मक लक्ष्य को ससमय पूरा करने जैसी क्षमतायें पैमाने का कार्य करता है I इस लेख में अपने करियर को सफल बनाने की व्याख्या और रणनीति पर प्रकाश डाला गया है I     Introduction: Every individual has his/her own option and goal (under prevailing situations/circumstances) to choose career   and develop professional skills. He/She works to achieve goal set by him/her in the career and wants to lead a happy life. Happiness is measured by him/her in terms of wealth, prestige, promotion, money, convenience, status, family, and values in society and organizations. He/She makes progress in his/her career with certain values like strong work ethics, accountability, performing the tasks assigned and achieving organizational goals.     Job Satisfaction vrs Successful Career: Job satisfaction is the key factor for making career successful. Job satisfaction typically depends upon the following factors:
  1. Your talent,
  2. Your ability and competency,
  3. Your strength,
  4. Nature of job matching to your choice,
  5. Workplace,
  6. Working environment around your workplace,
  7. Your relationship with the colleagues.
As people differ in their ‘ability’ and ‘will to do’, Success in career varies from person to person. In addition, company policy also affects the level of success in the career.   What Determines a Successful Career: Successful career starts from the basic traits of an employee like degree of alertness, positive attitude, attentiveness, interest, desire and action.  Knowledge, skill, wisdom, talent, and experience play like bonus and incentive in promotion of successful career. One needs to manage career like managing your business.  Talent may be considered as combination of creative and innovative ideas which are researched and developed to transform into either tangible or tangible goods for noble cause.   Working for Successful Career:  The followings are the determinants of a successful career:
  1. Keep on adding values to your talent,
  2. Prove your talents in achieving desired outcomes,
  3. Practice your talent,
  4. Value and believe your work and workplace,
  5. Your integrity and cordial relation with your colleagues,
  6. Adoptability, accountability and self-motivation.
  7. Build a professional resume,
  8. Develop your own networking,
  9. Get ready to take full responsibility,
  10. Bear strong desire for perfect performance,
  11. Personal branding dictating your specific traits,
  12. Always set standards for doing any work,
  13. Make documentation
  14. Update your knowledge, skill and wisdom as per organizational needs.
Ask Yourself:

1

Where will I be position myself after five years with the help of what I am doing (my action) every day?

:

Monitor and evaluate yourself every day.

2

Where have I to pay more attention for career progression?

:

Engage yourself more in result oriented activity. Avoid spending your time on least important work.

3

Which wrongness and rejection have pulled me down?

:

Learn from the mistakes and reform yourself aiming to your target).

4

Know what people expect from you?

:

Your image may not be good among the people. Don’t worry; always ask yourself what people expect from you.

5

Are the people creating trouble to you or helping to you?

:

List such people.  Appreciate them telling their good actions.)

Strategy for successful Career:

1

Don’t be proudly. It is a limited resource.

:

 Develop right thinking.

2

 It is wrong to always think where to invest time and strength.

:

 Set target.

3

Everybody likes to remain in comfort zone. But always try to keep yourself outside the comfort zone.

:

 Prepare plan.

4

”Let the things go” creates tension. But bearing the tension from the beginning makes the work or life tasteless.

:

Make your plan error proof after consulting your boss and people who are concerned to it.

5

It is CHAMATKAAR to keep desire to know more and more information.

:

 Build up the team.

6

 Always know 3 things: (i).types of desires you want to have, (ii). On what issues you should believe; and (iii). What type of work you should do.

:

Always learn from the situation.

7

It is good if there is a problem.

:

Be ready to take challenge.

8

Whatever is happening in your life, it is helpful to move forward in your life.

:

Work promptly.

(Source: Dainik Bhaskar, Jaipur dt. 16.11.2014)   Conclusion:  Motives are basically needs, wants and desires. As much as the motive will be strong and strongly directed towards the goal, the person will be motivated accordingly to achieve the goal. He/She needs to develop leadership quality and habit for perfect management functions. Ability to influence others (leadership), planning (roadmap), organizing (line of actions) and controlling (feedback and follow up) together determine the level of success in the career.    References:       1. Management of Organizational Behaviour; Paul Harsey &  Ken Blanchard; 4th edition; Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
  1. google.com/search......
  2. thebalancecareer.com
  3. mikemeritchie.com
  4. www.bartleby.com.essay
  5. agcareer.com/newsletter

Entrepreneurial Mindset- key of success

Stress, frustration, confusion, and failure are the outcomes or consequences which a person does not feel satisfied as these were not accomplished as per his/her desired result, goal, mission, or vision. These vary from person to person with different degrees. On the other hand, On the other hand, we see quite a good number of people who keep on marching forward with overall growth in their lives and always get ready to do something in different way with new taste and flavour. The benefits out of their acts go to all persons of their family, organization, society, nation and ultimately whole world.  People acknowledge their outstanding contribution and they also improve their lifestyle. They do not stop here only rather explore new ideas/opportunities and move forward to achieve something extraordinary.

Turning stress, frustration, confusion, and failure into peace, pleasure, clarity and success require a set of habits, attitudes and behaviours what we call it entrepreneurial mindset. Entrepreneurial Mindset is defined as “all the characteristics and elements that compose the entrepreneurial potential in every individual”.1  Another definition is “An entrepreneurial mindset is a set of skills that enable people to identify and make the most of opportunities, overcome and learn from setbacks, and succeed in a variety of settings”.2

Success and failure depend upon an Individual behaviour which can be changed by enhancing knowledge, skill and wisdom. Success depends upon interpersonal skill and leadership which influence the behaviour. The level of ability and motivation being possessed by an individual speak about his/her success rate. Poor ability and low motivation yield poor performance. Vice-versa, higher ability and higher motivation yield higher performance. Accordingly, failure and/or success is measured.

Individual’s behaviour takes shape on the basis of goal set by his/her and is motivated by desire to attain some goals. Goals are set with some motives such as need, desire, drives, impulse, etc. When the motives become stronger, the individual develops strong attitudes and behaviour to accomplish the goals. Adversely, motive strength decreases when he/she deviates from the goals, does not perform activity perfectly, imitates behaviour, bears frustration for longer period, makes excuses and tends to give up.

In order to create and nurture successful and rewarded circumstances around one, he/she may need to practice the following points.

1.      Be sensitive and responsive to your surroundings.

2.      Fulfil commitment what you have given to others.

3.      Always be positive to the situation which you are/will be facing.

4.      Develop learning and listening habits and be flexible to grasp other’s views and opinions.

5.      Surround yourself with smart and accomplished people.

6.      Build up strong network and relationship with the people in the society and organization.

7.      Always practice time management.

8.      Develop strong desire, need and make commitment to achieve them whatever situation prevails.

9.      Mind it, everything is possible not the impossible.

10.  Always keep on trying to do the work in different way what others have not done.

11.  Generate new ideas, creativity and innovation to solve problems.

12.   Become solution provider rather than problem talker.

13.  Challenge the status-quo.

14.  Explore all possibilities to serve the society.

15.  Maintain ethics, trustworthiness and integrity.

16.  Think outside the box.

17.  Take initiatives and responsibility and give final result well in prescribed time, quality and quantity.

18.  Draw other’s attention when you work and talk.

Rapid advancement in the field of technology, management and behavioural science is changing the social behaviour skill and professional skill. In this regard, personality development in the wake of building up entrepreneurial mindset at individual level and entrepreneurial culture at society/organizational level is playing a vital role to attain success in all walks of life.

Conclusion:  We are surrounded by numerous problems and issues such as low income, poverty, unemployment, poor life style, inadequate infrastructure, etc can only be eradicated by inculcating entrepreneurial culture and entrepreneurial mindset in the society as well as among the people. The process of wealth generation in the economy can only be accelerated by participation of large number of the people in the society.

           

 

 

 

 

References: 1.Entrepreneurship- Theory, Process, Practice (Seventh edition,2007); Donald F. Kuratko and Richard M. Hodgetts; Thomson South Western.

2. www.nfte.com › entrepreneurial-mindset.

Sushil Sir 2

Skill Development

Skill Devlopment

Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship

The Ministry is responsible for co-ordination of all Skill Development efforts across the country, removal of disconnect between demand and supply of skilled manpower, building the vocational and technical training framework, skill up-gradation, building of new skills and innovative thinking not only for existing jobs but also jobs that are to be created.

CAPACITY BUILDING AND COVID 19

Capacity Building During Covid 19
 
CAPACITY BUILDING AND COVID 19 Introduction: Post- COVID 19 period is being viewed   by the economists and management pundits as opening of new opportunities along with new challenges and threats to the Indian economy. In this context, role of Government, entrepreneurs, management personnel, and supporting manpower has become more responsible and dutiful with changing vision and mission of their respective organizations and human capital. Government plays a role like a ring master to take lead in boosting economy. Entrepreneurs’ role is defined to create wealth with new business ideas and social responsibilities. They develop leadership excellence to overcome the challenges and threats and converting them into new opportunities in global perspective. They will need to re-assess the business environment, create new work culture in context with global competitiveness, and Work from Home (WFH) culture. No doubt, local and traditional demands will be fulfilled by micro entrepreneurs, but going beyond geographical and political boundaries new business ideas will be one of the key issues for promoting and sustaining their businesses. Management and professional personnel will have higher degree of challenges due to emergence of new technologies, and advance management practices which are to be adopted by their counterparts working in different parts of the world. Supportive manpower in the organizations will be required to upgrade their knowledge and skill so as to deliver goods as per prescribed standards effectively and efficiently. Non-commitment and ignorance in the network, and system will cause loss of credibility, brand images, industrial unrest, low salary, poor amenities and welfare, and ultimately resulting into low productivity, frustration and damage of work culture. Situation after COVID 19: In context with emerging situation after COVID 19, it will be prime task of the top management to provide and upgrade knowledge, skill and professionalism in human resource in the organization. New technologies will rapidly develop to cater the needs of emerging new trends of demands of the customers. Business scenario due to decline of   buying capacity, health consciousness, insurance, health, need of rapid employment at mass scale, growth of agricultural outputs, aviation, defense etc will require dedicated, smart, punctual, alert, and ambitious persons who can create yield and benefits to the companies  How to cope with new situation: .       Capacity building is now an important step for enhancing higher productivity and profitability of the organization.  It is now necessary to understand the concept, process and strategy of capacity building. Capacity building is a process of upgrading and improving knowledge, skill and capabilities of individual, organization, network and system for their continuous growth and development. Capacity can be built up in the following areas of operation. These are:
  1. Governance,
  2. Knowledge and Skill Development and Management,
  3. Planning and development,
  4. Performance measurement,
  5. Communication and presentation,
  6. Organizational system and Policies,
  7. Networking and business support mechanism,
  8. System development,
  9. Financial management,
  10. Risk/Crisis management,
  11. Ecosystem and organizational culture,
  12. Nature and Environment,
  13. Advocacy Skill,
  14. Leadership excellence,
  15. Strategic formulation.
Process of Capacity Building: Capacity building is a continuous process at work which should focus on the following four major points.
  1. Focus on what matters:
(i). Define Success, (ii). Setting Priorities (iii). Make effective Self-Management
  1. Develop Allies:
(i). Building a Network, (ii). Nurture your Network
  1. Achieve Results
(i). Project Management. (ii). Problem Solving, (iii). Negotiating, and (iv). Presentation and Communication Style
  1. Integrated Thinking:
(i). Identifying Opportunities for Change, (ii). Managing and Communicating Change
  1. Focus on what matters:
Individual’s success is finally organization’s success. Every individual works hard to achieve success in his/her different stages of life. For this, he/she needs to develop passion and commitment to achieve desired success. Successful persons are those who make things happen. So, first step on capacity building process is to define success. (i). Define Success: For defining the success, following steps may be considered: Step-1: Think what success means to you. Step-2: Set a time to achieve success. Step-3: Set your values, goals and purpose of your success. Step-4: Study in depth the nature of job which you are to perform. Step-5: Study the stakeholders/surroundings/environment of the work which you are to attend. Step-6: Assess that you are good at the work to build your strength. Step-7: Decide what contribution you can make. Step-7: Keep your imagination free from any prejudice and mental blockades. Step-8: Assess your work what you are doing that should not deviate from your path of success. Step-9: Put you success statement in writing and always refer and evaluate it. Once you define your success, prepare a picture of your success.  Always keep monitoring and evaluating the progress made in achieving success.
(ii). Setting Priorities: Priorities are identified to prepare framework for self-management and putting first things first.
a). Framework for Self-Management: An individual spends time purposefully when the wok is important and urgent and Wastes his/her time when he/she meets the other’s need (refer table-1).
 Source: Capacity Building Workshop, Participant Handbook, DC-MSME/GIZ, May 2014
b). Putting first things first:
  1. Write down your priorities on notes and checklist,
  2. Plan and prepare to do.
iii. Develop Planning, prioritizing and controlling mechanism at your own level.
  1. Provide highest quality of life.
For becoming effective self-manager, the task should be implemented carefully by following three steps: Organize Act and Evaluate.
  1. Develop Allies: A manager cannot work to achieve desired result without support of others. He/ She develops a network of allies on which he/she relies while executing the work.He/She executes the work by (i).Managing his/her boss,(ii).Working collaboratively with his/her colleagues, and (iii).Delegating to subordinates.
(I). Building a Network: Building a network is strengthening yourself to perform the work to achieve desired success. He/She gains a lot of information, ideas, and feedback. He/She receives emotional supports from others. For building a strong and trustful network, he/she prepares a scatter diagram keeping him/her at the centre. Then rings will broaden one by one in respect of support what is needed from whom.  Persons helping in work from direct to indirect will be arranged from inner ring to outer rings. (ii). Nurture your Network: Followings are the steps: a). Making Networking a Priority: b). Nurturing ongoing relationship, c).Requesting assistance from others, d). Offering assistance to others, e). Observing common courtesies, f). Managing and maintaining network. g). Do not do: @ rely too much on others,@ make promise which you cannot, @  develop reputation for keeping score, @ accept any return from others.
  1. Achieve Results: In order to achieve desired results, the followings factors may be considered.
(i). Project Management: Project management provides structure, focus, flexibility and control in the pursuit of result (Bruce and Langdon). An idea without plan has no value. Result is achieved by execution of the idea which is to be developed in project. Every project has three things in common: viz: Beginning, End and Identifiable objectives. An effective project management has five fundamentals. They are: a). Focus on result, b). Manage through a structured work breakdown, c). Ensure proper balance between key constraints, d). Negotiate a “contract” between all parties involved, e). Implement a clear and simple reporting structure. (ii). Problem Solving: Problem solving is a process of finding new way(s) around the barriers or roadblock. It does not mean to change the plan what has been drawn as being implemented. RESCUER is a systematic problem solving technique that stands for:
  1. Restate ( in15 words),
  2. Examine (Ask, Gather, talk, Look, Get, Determine),
  • Search (for solutions),
  1. Compare ( pros and cons of the possible solutions),
  2. Utilize (solutions),
  3. Evaluate ( the results), and
  • Revise (the solutions).
(iii).Negotiating: Negotiating is not always a natural   talent. It is necessary for win or even not to lose the situation. Negotiating skill can be developed on the following three points: a). Identifying underlying needs: Establishing trusting and open climate, probe individual’s needs, chalk out assumptions, do not make your question interrogative, and make your own motives explicit, b). Establishing common ground: Identify interests and differences of the individuals, create a common interests on a common ground, and discuss where your needs differ from others and bring them on common ground, and c). Developing win-win situation: Offer your concrete options, remain open to new ideas ,examine issues with different perspectives, and look options that meet both parties’ needs. (iv). Presentation and Communication Style: Ask yourself, why someone should work with you. Follow these steps:
What defines me?>>>>What problem do I solve?>>>> How do I solve this problem?>>>>What impact do I create?
 
  1. Integrated/Creative Thinking:
Creative thinking is thinking something different. It is an attitude, manipulating your knowledge and experience, looking at ordinary and seeing differently. It has two aspects. They are: (i). Identifying Opportunities for Change: Looking at something differently is opportunity. Following steps may be followed: a). Capture good idea, b). Keep idea alive, c). Imagine new uses for old ideas, e). Put promising concepts to the test (ii). Managing and Communicating Change: The success should be communicated among employees to create positive energy. The end provides leanings what have been lost.  On this basis, beginnings start. In the process the employees should be kept informed always and their reactions/opinions should be invited. Conclusion: Capacity building is a continuous process which ultimately aims to success. Hence learning practice helps a person to view challenges/threats as a task or responsibilities and enables him/her to create win-win situation by creating favorable environment around him/her. So, the following three things should be considered by him/her. They are: (i). Observing others, (ii).Viewing the changes, and (iii).Asking the feedback. Foe an effective learning practice, one should follow the steps, viz: Plan, Execute, Reflect, and Learn. Learning behavior of a person depends upon 1.Action, 2. Thinking, 3. Feeling, 4.Accessing others. In the process of introspection, the following points should be considered:
  1. Objectivity: Seeking out reliable information and feedback.
  2. Learning: Continually filtering experience to produce best practice.
  • Self-confidence: being willing to face uncertainty and emotional discomfort.
  1. Responsibility: taking personal responsibility for own actions and state of mind.
  2. Tolerance for ambiguity and paradox: letting go of the feeling that you cannot control everything.
  3. Action: demonstrating values through action every day.
  • Balance in life: sorting out priorities and sticking to them.
  • Creativity and Intuition: tapping into unconscious thoughts and feelings.
  1. Egolessness: making decisions that are free of ego considerations.
Books, magazines, videos, tapes, self-study courses websites etc can be valuable components of your development plans.
References:
  1. Capacity Building Workshop, Participant Handbook, DC-MSME/GIZ, May 2014
Bibliography: 
  1. https://www.councilofnonprofits.org/tools-resources/what-capacity-building
  2. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/topics/capacity-building
  3. https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/capacitybuilding/en/
               https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/capacitybuilding/en/
  1. https://www.google.com/search?rlz=1C1CHBD_enIN882IN882&q=individual+capacity+building&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiQ08n-saTpAhUlGaYKHY_BAx4Q1QIoBHoECBcQBQ&biw=1366&bih=625
  2. https://abtcapabilities.com/individual-and-institutional-capacity-building/
  3. https://www.ilo.org/secsoc/areas-of-work/capacity-building-and-knowledge-dissemination/lang--en/index.htm
  1. Biswajeet Pattanayak, ‘Human Resources Management’, Prentice  Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, (2001)
  2. Brain Wallace, ‘Leadership for Strategic change’, Ashwin J, Shah, Jaico Publishing House Delhi (1997).
  1. https://www.undp.org/content/dam/aplaws/publication/en/publications/capacity-development/capacity-development-a-undp-primer/CDG_PrimerReport_final_web.pdf
  2. europa.eu/thinktank/en/document.html……
Sushil Sir 2

Learning English



Rapid globalization harnessed exigency of a global language. English spoken worldwide is found to be the one. Communicating to a large mass of individuals adhered by the way of english language. Facilitate one to understand person in any part of the globe.
Learning english is not an enormously tough task.
Predominantly everyone has to keep ond thing in their mind that English is just a language. Neither consider themselves less important if not good enough nor the one fluent in english should consider themselves as superior.
To gain mastery over English language one must start training their brain from an early age. This implies to every language the person want to excel at. If a person is good at any language then it certainly be their native language. The same logic applies in learning English, one must try repeating and speaking incessantly in their brain the language they want to excel at.
Just start by learning simple words, subsequently followed by reading books on regular basis. Reading helps one learn rapidly. Habit of reading help a person to gain mastery over about 50% in learning a language. It is then followed by developing a habit of writing paragraphs or essays on any topic on regular basis which helps in further development of one’s mind to ace in the language. All these measures followed on a regular basis give tremendous change in their lives and let one realize themselves their improvement and thus slowly and gradually starts to get a firm grip over the language.
After following all these measures one can move to next level which is watching english tv shows ,movies, cartoon shows ,etc as per their comfort. Watching cartoon shows at beginners level is recommended then later on watching advanced level shows with subtitles helps one improve a lot . Learning by repeating sentences is a best method. Thereon try speaking sentence or talking to others will further help one becoming confident.
Thus , there are innumerable ways to learn frequent english. Firm determination with incessant practice helps one achieve their goal.

YOU CAN WIN

winning

INTRODUCTION:

The word “WIN” is a verb and refers to achieving your target/ambition   by overcoming the difficulties, which come on the way of accomplishment process, by putting your efforts while performing the work for completion. This situation (WIN) can be attained when you are sensitive to the environment, and have vision, confidence and aptitude of putting hard work with disciplined mindset.

Ignorance is a state of mind when a person lacks confidence, ambitions and disciplined mindset. He bears fear and confusion in his mind due to poor wisdom, knowledge, and skill.  He may have desire to do something, but unable to do so because of above mentioned reasons. Then he starts pretending, abstaining, and avoiding attending the work. This kind of attitude repeats again and again and this attitude becomes habit (style of thinking). This set of mind creates fear and negativity in his mind. Ultimately, he starts justifying his stand by giving arguments as if he is right instead of telling his own problems. He starts abusing/criticizing the system/others as if he is right person but what to do others are not cooperating him.  He designs and develops his own argument on the situation with fear in his mind. This stage is called ‘prejudice’. Such behavior is termed as ‘ignorance’. Now, ignoring something purposefully and knowingly is stupidity. But ignorance by mistake or unknowingly is excusable. He accepts his ignorance and tries to rectify himself and steps what he is to follow. So, Learning aptitude and listening skill are two most important tools to avoid ‘ignorance skill’. Poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, and practicing social evils are the outcomes of ignorant mindset.  Attitude of ignorance can be stopped through empowerment process.

Empowerment” is a process to building capability to achieve one’s ambition. It has three stages:

1.      Developing  willingness/desire to do,

2.      Developing aptitude to try to do, and

3.      Achieved/done.

4.      Ignorance is the barrier at first stage of empowerment process itself.

REASONS OF IGNORANCE:

Ignorance mindset develops due to the following reasons:

1.      Lack of value based education,

2.      Bearing low ambition,

3.      Lack of disciplined mind,

4.      Lack of interest/desire to create wonder,

5.      Having attitude to criticize others,

6.      Non-submissive,

7.      Lack of integrity,

8.      Not maintaining cordial relationship with others,

9.      Lack of listening skill,

10.  Lack of learning aptitude,

11.  Bearing fearful mind  with future,

12.  Lack of flexibility in   attitude.

13.  Selfishness

HOW TO AVOID IGNORANCE:

1.      Develop self-loving personality,

2.      Provide value based education,

3.      Love and passion to your language, culture, and religion (nationalism),

4.      Helping attitude,

5.       Sensibility to the surrounding,

6.      High ambition,

7.      Strong desire to do something new for the society,

8.      Let whole world infuse into your mind and soul,

9.      Always think “I am always learning what I am going to do today.”

STRATEGY:

1.      Make  long term and short term objectives  of your work to be done,

2.      Set goals/targets to achieve the objectives,

3.      Evolve course of action to accomplish goals/targets (Planning),

4.      Execute the course of action (Organizing, staffing, directing and Coordinating),

5.      Monitoring the work being done (Controlling),

6.      Evaluating the outcomes obtained,

7.      Redraw future course of actions,

8.      Keep on working till you accomplish you objectives,

9.      Document them properly,

10.  Let the whole world know about your achievement.

“Success” in simple terms is achieving one’s target or ambition.  Continual success in the life depends upon how an individual put his energy, time and resources in a productive manner. If the work done by him/her benefits the people, society and mankind as whole, his success is scaled and measured by them and work done by him/her is accepted by the society. This is in true sense a success. Hence, success is not a chance but it is a behavior. So our behavior should always be sharpened with vision, wisdom, and continual untiredsome hard work and we need to build up a behavior which would lead to success.  

Hence, IGNORANCE is a curse for the human life and moving one step forward is the readiness to succeed.

Conclusion:  The purpose of writing this article with caption “YOU CAN WIN” is the first step to get ready to overhaul an individual’s personality. Some evil thoughts and practices like ignorance, negligence, rigidity in thoughts and mindsets, non-commitment, lack of social behavior etc retard the success in the life.  In other words, WIN-WIN position in the life depends upon one’s entrepreneurial mindset.



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Sushil Sir

RANTEC I.T.I RANCHI

Rantec2

Online Inquiry

Ranchi Television & Electronics Training Centre (RANTEC) is the outcome of enduring efforts made by a team of young dynamic educated enterprising and technically qualified people. In fact Centre is need of time. In the advent of electronics era and with the massive doordarshan expansion throughout the country and so in the region of Jharkhand the Institute is more significant. A few educated youths thought opening such an institute which will impart Training in various vocational courses and meet the growing need of technicians at the same time offer them opportunities in self employment and job opportunities in various industrial sectors.

The ITI courses has been started by this training centre in 1994 to insure a steady flow of skilled workers in different trades for the industry, to raise the quality and quantity of industrial production by systematic training of workers and to reduce unemployment among the educated youth by providing them suitable trainings in various trades.

The institute has got permanent affiliation with national council for vocational training (NCVT),Govt of India since 1996. The institute is committed for technical excellence and for securing high position for deserving candidates in large numbers in business and industry to contribute the economic development and prosperity of our country.

Since last few years after successful training, several students are working /employed in different parts of country in railway, public and private sectors and government departments.

It is unique institutions of its kind in Jharkhand , well equipped workshops, library, generator and practical facilities with expert and experienced supervisors who will impart intensive training.

Courses Offered
sl No.
Name of No. the Trade  
Period of Training
Min. Qualification for Admission
Total Tuition Fee & Admission Fee (Session 2020 -2021)
1
ELECTRICIAN
2 Years
Passed 10th Class examination under 10+2 system of education with Science or equivalent.
Per Semester Rs. 12,000/-
2
FITTER
2 Years
Passed 10th Class examination under 10+2 system of education or equivalent.
Per Semester Rs. 12,000/-

Mathematics is Fun

math 1
A luminary mathematician knows sanctity and expediency of being cognitive. Mathematics besides being a subject involves essence from formation of whole galaxy to its very destruction.
A majority considering mathematics as the most toughest subject. They are unaware of the fact that everything they experience in their daily life involves mathematics. From waking up to the time to reaching desired destination , is accurately measured by time , is all mathematics. Buying anything, spending conscientiously, arguing, playing games, managing scores, managing population data , remembering one's birthday,  counting age to gambling everything is just a magic of mathematics. As there is a famous credence.
"Practice makes everyone perfect "
Numbers are real, they are true. They can't change according to the situation or place. They are firm.
Aryabhatta who introduce zero to the whole world and all the great mathematician from time immemorial , they just wanted to clarify each and every young and aspirational mind that mathematics is fun. One can experiment in million and trillion and more ways to find out what magnificent wonder maths is. Vedic mathematics originated from India proves to be a cornerstone in getting to know mathematics eloquently.
Mathematics is indelible that pacify one's mind as soon as person starts expediting it more cognitively.
Schools taught mathematics just as a subject not as how interesting the maths is. They don't explain the little minds wonders of mathematics they end up losing interest in maths. A person if taught maths in correct, precise , friendly as well as with fun , they will incessantly gain interest as well as mastery over any topic in maths.
Thus, mathematics is fun if experienced as a way of living. It's the only thing that holds no negativity besides being the fact negative sign comes from it.

Effects of social media

Technological advancement has brought tremendous changes in the globalizing world. This led to advent of social media. Social media is a platform where you get to interact to persons from all around the globe just sitting at the comfort zone of your place. It helps you to get in touch with each and every person even far away from you.
Social media has both positive as well as negative impact according to the way it is used. Using it in a good way results in positive impact albeit if misused one have to bear aftermath.
Positively usage makes it a better environment for everyone. It can be done by proper utilization of social media in spreading correct information to everyone and creating awareness about the misinformation. Besides using it just to contact our relatives either on facebook, whatsapp or any other social platform , we can use it for making a great move towards an enchanting future.
Social media such as facebook,earns more than a trillion ever year. If it used effectively it helps in generating a platform for businessman to know about their customer needs and demand , to spread correct information on any issue and many more.
So any other social apps if used effectively they helps in getting enormous changes in society improving lifestyle of every section of society.
As it has rightly been said,
"One must think of every aspect of any issue before giving views on the matter."
Negative impact of social media can be rampant. This has caused disenchantment for many youngsters ,if they don't understand its susceptibility. Hackers have their eyes on every activity related to technology. They are cognizant of every activity occurring globally. This can even led to destruction of one's life or all.
Thus it can be concluded to be aware of every aspect of the information spreading over social media and one must be devotedly be positive in any approach.

BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY

 

INTRODUCTION TO BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY

Introduction:-

Blockchain is an emerging technology platform for developing decentralized applications and data storage, over and beyond its role as the technology underlying the cryptocurrencies. The basic theory of this platform is that it allows one to create a distributed and replicated ledger of events, transactions, and data generated through various IT processes with strong cryptographic guarantees of tamper resistance, immutability, and verifiability. Public blockchain platforms allow us to guarantee these properties with overwhelming probabilities even when untrusted users are participants of distributed applications with ability to transact on the platform. Fundamentally there are
Three types of blockchains:- 

    1. public

    2. private and

    3. Hybrid.

In a public blockchain, anyone can connect to the blockchain and with an appropriate computer and software and become a blockchain server node. No permission is needed. In a private blockchain which is typically owned and managed by a company or group of companies, permission is needed to join the private blockchain. The entire concept of blockchain is a combination of a handful of different concepts and techniques i.e. a distributed ledger system, peer-to-peer network, key cryptography, hashing,  etc.

1. Blockchain Technology and Bitcoin Cryptocurrency

Blockchain is simply a data structure where each block is linked to another block. The blocks are linked to each other in a time-stamped chronological order. It is distributed digital ledger of an immutable, public record of digital transactions.

History of Bitcoin:-  Bitcoin was invented in 2008 by an unknown person or group of people using the name Satoshi Nakamoto and started in 2009 when its source code was released as open-source software. Bitcoins are created as a reward for a process known as mining. They can be exchanged for other currencies, products, and services.

The Bitcoin whitepaper, Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, was published in 2008 by Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin is a digital payment currency that utilizes cryptocurrency (a digital medium of exchange) and peer-to-peer (P2P) technology to create and manage monetary transactions as opposed to a central authority. The open source Bitcoin P2P network creates the bitcoins and manages all the bitcoin transactions.

  Definition and Characteristics of Blockchain Basics Of Blockchain Every new record is validated across the distributed network before it is stored in a block. All information stored on the ledger is verifiable and auditable. Each block is identified by its cryptographic signature.

Distributed : In this distributed type database is controlled by n number of nodes at the same time.

Anonymous : No identity like pan card, Adhar Card, Voter Id, any physical identity have to be submitted, an  anonymous identity is given by the system which is called address.

Time- stamped : Each block is time stamped in a chronological order, transactions are also time stamped.

Unanimous: The whole distributed network are executing operations unanimously, every one is agree and every one is conscious of what they are doing.

Immutable: The ledger is immutable because everyone is working on same ledger.

Secure: Blockchain is  secure because ledger is immutable.

Programmable: Blockchain is a programmable database.  

CRYPTOGRAPHY :-

1.Symmetric key cryptography :- This type of encryption is an encryption methodology that uses a single key to encrypt (encode) and decrypt (decode) cryptography data. It is the oldest and most well-known technique for encryption. The secret key can be a word, a number, or a string of letters, and it's applied to a message.

2.Asymmetric key cryptography :- In such type of cryptographic arrangement, every node has two keys; Private key and Public key. The private key is known only to the node owner whereas the public key is known to all the nodes in the network. The combination of a private key and a public key makes a unique digital signature for every node. This makes the node authentic to carry out transactions and verifications.

Blockchain as a secure record keeping system:-

Blockchain are the way of ordering and verifying transaction in a verified ledger. In the block chain thousands of computers in a distributed network use cryptographic techniques to create a permanent, public record of every single transaction that has occurred science creation of ledger.

Different Features of Blockchain:- Blockchain are Recorded Transactions, Decentralized, Validity by many, Requires Consensus, Transparent and  Unable to Hack.

Features of Blockchain Based Solutions are :

  • Complexity reduction,
  • Shared trusted transaction,
  • Error reduction,
  • Auditable,
  • Straight-through-processing, and
  • Secure.

Benefits of Blockchain Based Solutions are:

  • Transaction time changes from days to near instantaneous,
  • Overheads and cost intermediated reduction,
  • Reduces the risk of tampering, and
  • Reduces fraud and cyber crime.

Types of Bitcoin Wallet

Web Wallets :- These are websites or even online exchange that allows storage examples are Blockchain.info, Greenaddress, Coinbase, Coinbase Value Storage.

Mobile Wallets:- A smartphone wallets is easy to scane QR codes to make quick payments example: Breadwallet, Mycelium, AirBitz, GreenBits.

Desktop Wallets:- These are apps installed in desktop computer or laptap. Examples are Electrum, Multibit, Armory.

Hardware Wallets:- A piece of hardware is used to store the private key to our bitcoins. Examples are Coindesk, Bitadress.

Multi-Signature Wallets:- These wallets require multiple private key signatures to make a transactions. Examples are CarbonWallet, Coinbase, Blocktrail, Coinkite.

2. Ehereum And SmartContracts

Ethereum: Ethereum was conceptualized by Vitalik Buterin in November 2013, it is a distributed public Blockchain network. The key idea proposed was the development of a Turing-complete language that allows the development of smart contracts for blockchain and decentralized applications.

Ethereum aims to enable innovations in four key areas: Currency issuance, Decentralized Autonomous  Organizations (DAO), Smart Contracts, Smart Property.

Smart Contract: A smart contract is computerized transaction protocol that executes the terms of a contract. When running on the blockchain a smart contract becomes like a self-operating computer program that automatically executes when specific conditions are met.

Comparison Between Bitcoin & Ethereum


Feature

Bitcoin

Ethereum

Concept

Digityal Money

World Computer

Founder

Satoshi Nakamoto (unknown)

Vitalik Buterin and team

Scripting Language

Turing incomplete

Turing Compleate

Release Date

Jan 2009

July 2015

Coin Release Method

Early mining

Through ICO

Average block time

~10 minuites

~ 12-15 seconds


Hyperledger :-


Hyperledger is an open source community focused on developing a suite of stable frameworks, tools and libraries for enterprise-grade blockchain deployments. It serves as a neutral home for various distributed ledger frameworks including Hyperledger Fabric, Sawtooth, Indy, as well as tools like Hyperledger Caliper and libraries like Hyperledger Ursa.


Solidity Solidity is an object-oriented, high-level language for implementing smart contracts. Smart contracts are programs which govern the behaviour of accounts within the Ethereum state. Solidity was influenced by C++, Python and JavaScript and is designed to target the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). Solidity is statically typed, supports inheritance, libraries and complex user-defined types among other features. With Solidity we can create contracts for uses such as voting, crowdfunding, blind auctions, and multi-signature wallets.


Hashgraph A hashgraph is a patented algorithm that promises the benefits of the blockchain (decentralization, distribution, and security through the use of hashing) without the drawback of low transaction speed. It was created by Leemon Baird and is the intellectual property of the Swirlds Corporation, which Baird founded. While Bitcoin allows for approximately 5 transactions per second and Ethereum allows for approximately 15 transactions per second, a hashgraph can process thousands of transactions per second.

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